GCC K-Nuggets; Smolnik, Stefan: Definitions of 'Ontology', Groupware Competence Center, Paderborn 2003.

THEMES: GCC K-Nuggets\Research | Smolnik, Stefan\K-Nuggets
YEAR: 2003
 
Definitions
  • The hierarchical structuring of knowledge about things by subcategorising them according to their essential (or at least relevant and/or cognitive) qualities. (Source: http://www.lyranthe.org/diary/archives/000443.html)
  • An ontology is a data construct that reflects the structure of a body of knowledge by including categories, vocabulary, and information about relationships; an ontology is generally assembled by humans and then used to analyze documents [Le01]. Ontologies create a common and shared understanding of some domain and this understanding can be communicated between people and application systems [Fe01]. They capture consensual knowledge, i.e. it is not restricted to some individual, but accepted by a group [Fe01], and thus, they are an important and basic method to enable knowledge discovery. (Sources: [Fe01] - Fensel, Dieter: Ontologies: A Silver Bullet for Knowledge Management and Electronic Commerce, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2001. / [Le01] - Letson, Russell: Taxonomies put Content in Context, in: Transform Magazine, December 2001, Manhasset, NY, USA, 2001.)
  • Human-developed data structures that combine elements of taxonomies and thesauri and include information about relationships among terms. Target documents are analyzed against its structures. Applied Semantics helps companies develop ontologies. (Source: http://www.transformmag.com/db_area/archs/2001/12/tfm0112f1.shtml)
  • The word ontology refers to two things:
      - A study of the subject of the categories of things that exist or may exist in some domain. Thus ontology is the study of categories. (Cf. biology, which is the study of living things, and theology which is the study of knowledge pertaining to God).
      - The product of such a study is called an ontology.
    The product of an ontological study will as a minimum come up with a type hierarchy. It may also come up with a relation hierarchy, as is the case in conceptual graph-theory. These two combined will be called an ontology. (Source: http://www.hum.auc.dk/cg/Glossary/O.html#Ontology)
  • Ontology is a shared conceptualization of the world as seen by the enterprise. Ontologies consist of definitional aspects like high-level schemas, and assertional aspects like entities, attributes, inter-relationships between entities, domain vocabulary and factual knowledge -- all connected in a semantic manner. Ontologies and metadata provide the specific tools to organize and provide a useful description of heterogeneous content. It incorporates as well as extends an automatic classification-supported approach of organizing content in a taxonomy.
    In addition to the hierarchical relationship structure of typical taxonomies, ontologies enable cross-node horizontal relationships between entities, thus providing for easy modeling of real-world information requirements. (Source: http://www.semagix.com/pdf/DM-Review-Final.pdf)
  • Taxonomie: Segmentierung, Klassifikation und Einordnung von Elementen in ein Kategoriensystem anhand ihrer definierten Beziehungen zueinander
  • Thesaurus: Terminologie zu best. Domäne, keine Instanzen; Graph mit Primitiven, 2 feste Relationen (ähnlich, Synonym); kommen ursprünglich aus der Bibliographie